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Read the following article about how to be environmentally friendly and decide in which paragraph (A - E) the following are mentioned. Write your answer (A, B, C, D, or E). Write one letter for each answer. The paragraphs may be chosen more than once.
A. FAIR TRADE
Farmers in developing countries are some of the most vulnerable people on earth, prey to world commodity markets, middlemen and the weather. So-called “fair trade” arrangements guarantee co-operative groups a price above the world market and a bonus on top. The growing fair-trade market has distributed hundreds of millions of pounds to more than 50 million people worldwide. But critics say that fair trade will never lift a country out of poverty; indeed, it may keep it there, because the money generated from the sale goes almost in its entirety to rich countries which promote the products. As a simple guide, only about 5% of the sale price of a fair-trade chocolate bar may actually go to a poor country.
B. ORGANIC FOOD
For food to be organic it must be free of added chemicals, both in the growing of the food and in the killing of the pests that might damage the crop. In a world where many manufactured chemicals have never been properly tested for safety, this is a very big selling point. Parents are thus prepared to pay a premium for organic food, especially when chemicals suspected of causing a variety of problems have been found, albeit in tiny quantities, in most children’s blood. The problem is that many farmers have not switched to organic in sufficient numbers to satisfy this growing market. As a result, supermarkets are often forced to fly vegetables as they can label “organic” halfway around the world, at a great cost to the planet in extra greenhouse gases. Environmentalists are now urging shoppers to buy locally produced vegetables, even if they are not organic and have been sprayed with pesticides.
A great shift has taken place in the way we think about rubbish. Where once we were happy to bury it in landfills or dump it at sea, we are now being urged by national and local governments to recycle it and think of waste as a resource. The wheelie-bin culture is being replaced by a series of kerbside collections for paper, metals, plastic, bottles, clothes and compost. The idea is to cut landfill as well as saving the planet. It is, however, having some unexpected consequences. Most of Britain's plastic and paper is now being sent for recycling in China or India, which creates more greenhouse gases just to get it there, plus workers then have to separate it. Meanwhile, some paper and bottles carefully sorted out by householders end up being dumped in landfills after all, because the demand for recycled materials constantly fluctuates.
D. BEING CARBON NEUTRAL
If you want to make yourself feel better about the planet, there are lots for you to ease your conscience by becoming “carbon neutral”. One of the most appealing methods is to pay for someone to plant trees, preferably creating or regenerating new forests. The theory is that trees grow by absorbing carbon dioxide and giving out oxygen storing the carbon in their trunks. But woods and forests create their own mini-climate, which collects and stores water and creates rainclouds. Added to this, there is the potential problem that planting trees often releases carbon stored in the soil – and what happens if the forests catch fire, or are chopped down and harvested for timber? Another and perhaps better solution might be to invest in small-scale hydro-electric schemes, so that people who live in the Himalayas, for example, and currently do not have electricity, can develop a 21st-century lifestyle without polluting the planet.
The idea of “green” tourism is to persuade local people not to chop down forests, shoot elephants or wipe out tigers, but to preserve them so rich tourists visit and peer at the wildlife through binoculars. Unfortunately, the best money is made from reintroducing animals for trophy hunting by the very rich- an idea which does not always meet with approval and has caused much debate. While tourists may help sustain some national parks, they often create as many problems as they solve. One is that they tend to demand all mod cons in their hotels, such as a great deal of water for showers; a luxury sometimes not available for locals. Eco-tourism, when properly managed, can offer the locals and the animals a brighter future. Sometimes, though, the only winners are a few business people who own hotels.
In which section is the following mentioned?