Đề thi minh họa TA 2017 - Bộ GDĐT

Câu hỏi trắc nghiệm

Chủ đề: Đề thi minh họa TA 2017 - Bộ GDĐT

Câu 11.

Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct word or phrase that best fits each of the numbered blanks from 31 to 35.

WAYS TO IMPROVE YOUR MEMORY

A good memory is often seen as something that comes naturally, and a bad memory as something that cannot be changed, but actually (31)______ is a lot that you can do to improve your memory. We all remember the things we are interested in and forget the ones that bore us. This no doubt explains the reason (32)______ schoolboys remember football results effortlessly but struggle with dates from their history lessons! Take an active interest in what you want to remember, and focus on it (33)______. One way to ‗make‘ yourself more interested is to ask questions — the more the better! Physical exercise is also important for your memory, because it increases your heart (34)______ and sends more oxygen to your brain, and that makes your memory work better. Exercise also reduces stress, which is very bad for the memory. The old saying that ―eating fish makes you brainy‖ may be true after all. Scientists have discovered that the fats (35)______ in fish like tuna, sardines and salmon — as well as in olive oil — help to improve the memory. Vitamin-rich fruits such as oranges, strawberries and red grapes are all good ‗brain food‘, too.

(Source: ―New Cutting Edge‖, Cunningham, S. & Moor. 2010. Harlow: Longman)

Question 31:

  1.  there
  2.  it
  3.  that
  4.  this

Hướng dẫn giải:

\ Đáp án A.

Cấu trúc: there is dùng để giới thiệu về ai/cái gì mà bạn chưa nhắc đến trước đó.

 

 

 

 

Câu 12.

Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct word or phrase that best fits each of the numbered blanks from 31 to 35.

WAYS TO IMPROVE YOUR MEMORY

                          A good memory is often seen as something that comes naturally, and a bad memory as something that cannot be changed, but actually (31)______ is a lot that you can do to improve your memory. We all remember the things we are interested in and forget the ones that bore us. This no doubt explains the reason (32)______ schoolboys remember football results effortlessly but struggle with dates from their history lessons! Take an active interest in what you want to remember, and focus on it (33)______. One way to ‗make‘ yourself more interested is to ask questions — the more the better! Physical exercise is also important for your memory, because it increases your heart (34)______ and sends more oxygen to your brain, and that makes your memory work better. Exercise also reduces stress, which is very bad for the memory. The old saying that ―eating fish makes you brainy‖ may be true after all. Scientists have discovered that the fats (35)______ in fish like tuna, sardines and salmon — as well as in olive oil — help to improve the memory. Vitamin-rich fruits such as oranges, strawberries and red grapes are all good ‗brain food‘, too.

(Source: ―New Cutting Edge‖, Cunningham, S. & Moor. 2010. Harlow: Longman)

 Question 32:

  1. why
  2. what
  3. how
  4. which

Hướng dẫn giải:

 Đáp án A.

Cấu trúc: the reason why + một mệnh đề cần nhấn mạnh + is/was: Câu nhấn mạnh, được dùng để giải thích, tập trung sự chú ý của người đọc. 

Câu 13.

Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct word or phrase that best fits each of the numbered blanks from 31 to 35.

WAYS TO IMPROVE YOUR MEMORY

                 A good memory is often seen as something that comes naturally, and a bad memory as something that cannot be changed, but actually (31)______ is a lot that you can do to improve your memory. We all remember the things we are interested in and forget the ones that bore us. This no doubt explains the reason (32)______ schoolboys remember football results effortlessly but struggle with dates from their history lessons! Take an active interest in what you want to remember, and focus on it (33)______. One way to ‗make‘ yourself more interested is to ask questions — the more the better! Physical exercise is also important for your memory, because it increases your heart (34)______ and sends more oxygen to your brain, and that makes your memory work better. Exercise also reduces stress, which is very bad for the memory. The old saying that ―eating fish makes you brainy‖ may be true after all. Scientists have discovered that the fats (35)______ in fish like tuna, sardines and salmon — as well as in olive oil — help to improve the memory. Vitamin-rich fruits such as oranges, strawberries and red grapes are all good ‗brain food‘, too.

(Source: ―New Cutting Edge‖, Cunningham, S. & Moor. 2010. Harlow: Longman)

 Question 33:

  1.  hardly
  2. slightly
  3.  consciously
  4. easily 

Hướng dẫn giải:

 Đáp án C

hardly: hầu như không

slightly: hơi

consciously: có ý thức  

easily: dễ dàng

Dịch nghĩa để chọn: có ý thức tập trung vào nó, chứ không phải tập trung dễ dàng/ hơi tập trung/ không tập trung.

Câu 14.

Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct word or phrase that best fits each of the numbered blanks from 31 to 35.

WAYS TO IMPROVE YOUR MEMORY

                       A good memory is often seen as something that comes naturally, and a bad memory as something that cannot be changed, but actually (31)______ is a lot that you can do to improve your memory. We all remember the things we are interested in and forget the ones that bore us. This no doubt explains the reason (32)______ schoolboys remember football results effortlessly but struggle with dates from their history lessons! Take an active interest in what you want to remember, and focus on it (33)______. One way to ‗make‘ yourself more interested is to ask questions — the more the better! Physical exercise is also important for your memory, because it increases your heart (34)______ and sends more oxygen to your brain, and that makes your memory work better. Exercise also reduces stress, which is very bad for the memory. The old saying that ―eating fish makes you brainy‖ may be true after all. Scientists have discovered that the fats (35)______ in fish like tuna, sardines and salmon — as well as in olive oil — help to improve the memory. Vitamin-rich fruits such as oranges, strawberries and red grapes are all good ‗brain food‘, too.

(Source: ―New Cutting Edge‖, Cunningham, S. & Moor. 2010. Harlow: Longman)

Question 34:

  1. degree
  2. level
  3. rate
  4. grade 

Hướng dẫn giải:

Đáp án C

degree: mức độ, trình độ

level: mức độ, trình độ

rate: tốc độ, tỷ lệ

grade: điểm số

Dịch nghĩa để chọn. Heart rate là một cụm, mang nghĩa: số lần đập của tim, nhịp tim. 

Câu 15.

Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct word or phrase that best fits each of the numbered blanks from 31 to 35.

WAYS TO IMPROVE YOUR MEMORY

                A good memory is often seen as something that comes naturally, and a bad memory as something that cannot be changed, but actually (31)______ is a lot that you can do to improve your memory. We all remember the things we are interested in and forget the ones that bore us. This no doubt explains the reason (32)______ schoolboys remember football results effortlessly but struggle with dates from their history lessons! Take an active interest in what you want to remember, and focus on it (33)______. One way to ‗make‘ yourself more interested is to ask questions — the more the better! Physical exercise is also important for your memory, because it increases your heart (34)______ and sends more oxygen to your brain, and that makes your memory work better. Exercise also reduces stress, which is very bad for the memory. The old saying that ―eating fish makes you brainy‖ may be true after all. Scientists have discovered that the fats (35)______ in fish like tuna, sardines and salmon — as well as in olive oil — help to improve the memory. Vitamin-rich fruits such as oranges, strawberries and red grapes are all good ‗brain food‘, too.

(Source: ―New Cutting Edge‖, Cunningham, S. & Moor. 2010. Harlow: Longman)

 Question 35:

  1. made
  2. existed
  3. founded
  4. found

Hướng dẫn giải:

made: làm

existed: tồn tại

founded: được thành lập (Vpp của found: thành lập)

found: được tìm thấy (Vpp của find: tìm thấy)

Dịch nghĩa để chọn. Ta thấy “chất béo” là tân ngữ, không thể “tự tìm thấy” nên phải chọn phương án mang nghĩa bị động.

Câu 16.

Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions from 36 to 42.

              It used to be that people would drink coffee or tea in the morning to pick them up and get them going for the day. Then cola drinks hit the market. With lots of caffeine and sugar, these beverages soon became the pick-me-up of choice for many adults and teenagers. Now drink companies are putting out so-called "energy drinks." These beverages have the specific aim of giving tired consumers more energy.

             One example of a popular energy drink is Red Bull. The company that puts out this beverage has stated in interviews that Red Bull is not a thirst quencher. Nor is it meant to be a fluid replacement drink for athletes. Instead, the beverage is meant to revitalize a tired consumer's body and mind. In order to do this, the makers of Red Bull, and other energy drinks, typically add vitamins and certain chemicals to their beverages. The added chemicals are like chemicals that the body naturally produces for energy. The vitamins, chemicals, caffeine, and sugar found in these beverages all seem like a sure bet to give a person energy.

            Health professionals are not so sure, though. For one thing, there is not enough evidence to show that all of the vitamins added to energy drinks actually raise a person's energy level. Another problem is that there are so many things in the beverages. Nobody knows for sure how all of the ingredients in energy drinks work together.

             Dr. Brent Bauer, one of the directors at the Mayo Clinic in the US, cautions people about believing all the claims energy drinks make. He says, ―It is plausible if you put all these things together, you will get a good result.‖ However, Dr. Bauer adds the mix of ingredients could also have a negative impact on the body. ―We just don't know at this point,‖ he says.

(Source: ―Reading Challenge 2‖, Casey Malarcher & Andrea Janzen, Compass Publishing)

Question 36: The beverages mentioned in the first paragraph aim to give consumers ______.

  1.  caffeine
  2.  sugar
  3.  more energy
  4. more choices

Hướng dẫn giải:

Dịch: Các loại đồ uống được nhắc đến ở đoạn đầu tiên mang mục đích là đem lại cho khách hàng ________.

A. caffeine  B. đường  C. nhiều năng lượng hơn D. nhiều lựa chọn 

Câu 17.

Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions from 36 to 42.

              It used to be that people would drink coffee or tea in the morning to pick them up and get them going for the day. Then cola drinks hit the market. With lots of caffeine and sugar, these beverages soon became the pick-me-up of choice for many adults and teenagers. Now drink companies are putting out so-called "energy drinks." These beverages have the specific aim of giving tired consumers more energy. 

             One example of a popular energy drink is Red Bull. The company that puts out this beverage has stated in interviews that Red Bull is not a thirst quencher. Nor is it meant to be a fluid replacement drink for athletes. Instead, the beverage is meant to revitalize a tired consumer's body and mind. In order to do this, the makers of Red Bull, and other energy drinks, typically add vitamins and certain chemicals to their beverages. The added chemicals are like chemicals that the body naturally produces for energy. The vitamins, chemicals, caffeine, and sugar found in these beverages all seem like a sure bet to give a person energy.

            Health professionals are not so sure, though. For one thing, there is not enough evidence to show that all of the vitamins added to energy drinks actually raise a person's energy level. Another problem is that there are so many things in the beverages. Nobody knows for sure how all of the ingredients in energy drinks work together. 

             Dr. Brent Bauer, one of the directors at the Mayo Clinic in the US, cautions people about believing all the claims energy drinks make. He says, ―It is plausible if you put all these things together, you will get a good result.‖ However, Dr. Bauer adds the mix of ingredients could also have a negative impact on the body. ―We just don't know at this point,‖ he says.

(Source: ―Reading Challenge 2‖, Casey Malarcher & Andrea Janzen, Compass Publishing)

Question 37: The word “it” in the second paragraph refers to ______.

  1. one example
  2. the company
  3.  Red Bull  
  4.  thirst quencher 

Hướng dẫn giải:

Dịch: Từ “nó” ở đoạn thứ 2 để ám chỉ _________.

A. một ví dụ  B. công ty  C. Red Bull   D. chất giải khát 

Câu 18.

Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions from 36 to 42.

              It used to be that people would drink coffee or tea in the morning to pick them up and get them going for the day. Then cola drinks hit the market. With lots of caffeine and sugar, these beverages soon became the pick-me-up of choice for many adults and teenagers. Now drink companies are putting out so-called "energy drinks." These beverages have the specific aim of giving tired consumers more energy. 

             One example of a popular energy drink is Red Bull. The company that puts out this beverage has stated in interviews that Red Bull is not a thirst quencher. Nor is it meant to be a fluid replacement drink for athletes. Instead, the beverage is meant to revitalize a tired consumer's body and mind. In order to do this, the makers of Red Bull, and other energy drinks, typically add vitamins and certain chemicals to their beverages. The added chemicals are like chemicals that the body naturally produces for energy. The vitamins, chemicals, caffeine, and sugar found in these beverages all seem like a sure bet to give a person energy.

            Health professionals are not so sure, though. For one thing, there is not enough evidence to show that all of the vitamins added to energy drinks actually raise a person's energy level. Another problem is that there are so many things in the beverages. Nobody knows for sure how all of the ingredients in energy drinks work together. 

             Dr. Brent Bauer, one of the directors at the Mayo Clinic in the US, cautions people about believing all the claims energy drinks make. He says, ―It is plausible if you put all these things together, you will get a good result.‖ However, Dr. Bauer adds the mix of ingredients could also have a negative impact on the body. ―We just don't know at this point,‖ he says.

(Source: ―Reading Challenge 2‖, Casey Malarcher & Andrea Janzen, Compass Publishing)

Question 38: According to the passage, what makes it difficult for researchers to know if an energy drink gives people energy?

  1.  Natural chemicals in a person‘s body
  2.  The average age of the consumer
  3. The number of beverage makers
  4. The mixture of various ingredients

Hướng dẫn giải:

Đáp án D

              According to the passage, what makes it difficult for researchers to know if an energy drink gives people energy?

A. Natural chemicals in a person‘s body  

B. The average age of the consumer

C. The number of beverage makers  

D. The mixture of various ingredients

Dịch: Theo bài khóa, điều gì làm cho các nhà nghiên cứu thấy khó khăn để biết được một loại đồ uống giải khát có thật sự đem lại năng lượng cho chúng ta hay không?

A. Những chất hóa học tự nhiên trong cơ thể người

B. Độ tuổi trung bình của khách hàng

C. Số lượng những nhà sản xuất đồ uống

 D. Hỗn hợp của nhiều loại nguyên liệu

Thông tin nằm ở đoạn 3: “Another problem is that there are so many things in the beverages. Nobody knows for sure how all of the ingredients in energy drinks work together.

Câu 19.

Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions from 36 to 42.

              It used to be that people would drink coffee or tea in the morning to pick them up and get them going for the day. Then cola drinks hit the market. With lots of caffeine and sugar, these beverages soon became the pick-me-up of choice for many adults and teenagers. Now drink companies are putting out so-called "energy drinks." These beverages have the specific aim of giving tired consumers more energy. 

             One example of a popular energy drink is Red Bull. The company that puts out this beverage has stated in interviews that Red Bull is not a thirst quencher. Nor is it meant to be a fluid replacement drink for athletes. Instead, the beverage is meant to revitalize a tired consumer's body and mind. In order to do this, the makers of Red Bull, and other energy drinks, typically add vitamins and certain chemicals to their beverages. The added chemicals are like chemicals that the body naturally produces for energy. The vitamins, chemicals, caffeine, and sugar found in these beverages all seem like a sure bet to give a person energy.

            Health professionals are not so sure, though. For one thing, there is not enough evidence to show that all of the vitamins added to energy drinks actually raise a person's energy level. Another problem is that there are so many things in the beverages. Nobody knows for sure how all of the ingredients in energy drinks work together. 

             Dr. Brent Bauer, one of the directors at the Mayo Clinic in the US, cautions people about believing all the claims energy drinks make. He says, ―It is plausible if you put all these things together, you will get a good result.‖ However, Dr. Bauer adds the mix of ingredients could also have a negative impact on the body. ―We just don't know at this point,‖ he says.

(Source: ―Reading Challenge 2‖, Casey Malarcher & Andrea Janzen, Compass Publishing)

Question 39: The word "plausible" in the passage is closest in meaning to _______.

  1.  impossible
  2.  reasonable
  3. typical
  4. unlikely 

Hướng dẫn giải:

Đáp án B

      The word “plausible” in the passage is closest in meaning to _______.

A. impossible   B. reasonable  C. typical    D. unlikely

Dịch: Từ “có vẻ hợp lý” trong bài khóa trên sát nghĩa nhất với từ ________.

A. không thể  B. có lý  C. điển hình   D. không chắc 

 

Câu 20.

Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions from 36 to 42.

              It used to be that people would drink coffee or tea in the morning to pick them up and get them going for the day. Then cola drinks hit the market. With lots of caffeine and sugar, these beverages soon became the pick-me-up of choice for many adults and teenagers. Now drink companies are putting out so-called "energy drinks." These beverages have the specific aim of giving tired consumers more energy. 

             One example of a popular energy drink is Red Bull. The company that puts out this beverage has stated in interviews that Red Bull is not a thirst quencher. Nor is it meant to be a fluid replacement drink for athletes. Instead, the beverage is meant to revitalize a tired consumer's body and mind. In order to do this, the makers of Red Bull, and other energy drinks, typically add vitamins and certain chemicals to their beverages. The added chemicals are like chemicals that the body naturally produces for energy. The vitamins, chemicals, caffeine, and sugar found in these beverages all seem like a sure bet to give a person energy.

            Health professionals are not so sure, though. For one thing, there is not enough evidence to show that all of the vitamins added to energy drinks actually raise a person's energy level. Another problem is that there are so many things in the beverages. Nobody knows for sure how all of the ingredients in energy drinks work together. 

             Dr. Brent Bauer, one of the directors at the Mayo Clinic in the US, cautions people about believing all the claims energy drinks make. He says, ―It is plausible if you put all these things together, you will get a good result.‖ However, Dr. Bauer adds the mix of ingredients could also have a negative impact on the body. ―We just don't know at this point,‖ he says.

(Source: ―Reading Challenge 2‖, Casey Malarcher & Andrea Janzen, Compass Publishing)

Question 40: What has Dr. Bauer probably researched?

  1. Countries where Red Bull is popular
  2. Energy drinks for teenage athletes
  3. Habits of healthy and unhealthy adults
  4. Vitamins and chemicals in the body

Hướng dẫn giải:

Đáp án D 

A. Những nước mà Red Bull phổ biến

B. Nước tăng lực cho những vận động viên ở độ tuổi thiếu niên

C. Thói quen của các thanh niên khỏe mạnh và không

D. Vitamin và các chất hóa học trong cơ thể

Thông tin nằm ở đoạn 4, bác sĩ Bauer nói về việc ảnh hưởng của hỗn hợp các nguyên liệu lên cơ thể con người

 

Câu 21.

Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions from 36 to 42.

              It used to be that people would drink coffee or tea in the morning to pick them up and get them going for the day. Then cola drinks hit the market. With lots of caffeine and sugar, these beverages soon became the pick-me-up of choice for many adults and teenagers. Now drink companies are putting out so-called "energy drinks." These beverages have the specific aim of giving tired consumers more energy. 

             One example of a popular energy drink is Red Bull. The company that puts out this beverage has stated in interviews that Red Bull is not a thirst quencher. Nor is it meant to be a fluid replacement drink for athletes. Instead, the beverage is meant to revitalize a tired consumer's body and mind. In order to do this, the makers of Red Bull, and other energy drinks, typically add vitamins and certain chemicals to their beverages. The added chemicals are like chemicals that the body naturally produces for energy. The vitamins, chemicals, caffeine, and sugar found in these beverages all seem like a sure bet to give a person energy.

            Health professionals are not so sure, though. For one thing, there is not enough evidence to show that all of the vitamins added to energy drinks actually raise a person's energy level. Another problem is that there are so many things in the beverages. Nobody knows for sure how all of the ingredients in energy drinks work together. 

             Dr. Brent Bauer, one of the directors at the Mayo Clinic in the US, cautions people about believing all the claims energy drinks make. He says, ―It is plausible if you put all these things together, you will get a good result.‖ However, Dr. Bauer adds the mix of ingredients could also have a negative impact on the body. ―We just don't know at this point,‖ he says.

(Source: ―Reading Challenge 2‖, Casey Malarcher & Andrea Janzen, Compass Publishing)

Question 41: Which of the following is NOT true according to the passage?

  1. Bauer does not seem to believe the claims of energy drink makers.
  2. Colas have been on the market longer than energy drinks.
  3. It has been scientifically proved that energy drinks work.
  4. The makers of Red Bull say that it can revitalize a person.

Hướng dẫn giải:

 Đáp án C

 Dịch: Câu nào dưới đây KHÔNG đúng dựa theo bài khóa?

A. Bauer không có vẻ tin vào những phát biểu của những nhà sản xuất đồ uống.

B. Cola đã tồn tại trên thị trường lâu hơn các loại đồ uống tăng lực.

C. Khoa học đã chứng minh rằng các loại đồ uống tăng lực thật sự hiệu quả.

D. Những người tạo ra Red Bull nói rằng nó có thể giúp đem lại sinh lực cho khác hàng.

Phương án A thông tin ở đoạn 4: “cautions people about believing all the claims energy drinks make.”

Phương án B thông tin ở đoạn 1: “Then cola drinks hit the market…..Now drink companies are putting out so-called "energy drinks."

Phương án D thông tin ở đoạn 2: “The vitamins, chemicals, caffeine, and sugar found in these beverages all seem like a sure bet to give a person energy.”

Phương án C không thể tìm thấy trong bài khóa. 

Câu 22.

Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions from 36 to 42.

              It used to be that people would drink coffee or tea in the morning to pick them up and get them going for the day. Then cola drinks hit the market. With lots of caffeine and sugar, these beverages soon became the pick-me-up of choice for many adults and teenagers. Now drink companies are putting out so-called "energy drinks." These beverages have the specific aim of giving tired consumers more energy. 

             One example of a popular energy drink is Red Bull. The company that puts out this beverage has stated in interviews that Red Bull is not a thirst quencher. Nor is it meant to be a fluid replacement drink for athletes. Instead, the beverage is meant to revitalize a tired consumer's body and mind. In order to do this, the makers of Red Bull, and other energy drinks, typically add vitamins and certain chemicals to their beverages. The added chemicals are like chemicals that the body naturally produces for energy. The vitamins, chemicals, caffeine, and sugar found in these beverages all seem like a sure bet to give a person energy.

            Health professionals are not so sure, though. For one thing, there is not enough evidence to show that all of the vitamins added to energy drinks actually raise a person's energy level. Another problem is that there are so many things in the beverages. Nobody knows for sure how all of the ingredients in energy drinks work together. 

             Dr. Brent Bauer, one of the directors at the Mayo Clinic in the US, cautions people about believing all the claims energy drinks make. He says, ―It is plausible if you put all these things together, you will get a good result.‖ However, Dr. Bauer adds the mix of ingredients could also have a negative impact on the body. ―We just don't know at this point,‖ he says.

(Source: ―Reading Challenge 2‖, Casey Malarcher & Andrea Janzen, Compass Publishing)

Question 42: What is the main idea of this passage?

  1.  Caffeine is bad for people to drink.
  2. It is uncertain whether energy drinks are healthy.
  3.  Red Bull is the best energy drink.
  4.  Teenagers should not choose energy drinks. 

Hướng dẫn giải:

 Đáp án B 

Dịch: Nội dung chính của bài khóa là gì?

A. Cafein không tốt cho người uống

B. Chưa chắc chắn được các loại đồ uống tăng lực có tốt cho sức khỏe hay không.

C. Red Bull là loại đồ uống tăng lực tốt nhất.  

D. Thiếu niên không nên chọn các loại đồ uống tăng lực

Toàn bài nhắc đến việc đồ uống tăng lực được các nhà sản xuất quảng cáo rằng sẽ đem lại năng lực cho khách hàng, tuy nhiên khoa học chưa chứng minh được điều này, và không ai rõ liệu hỗn hợp các dưỡng chất trong đồ uống tăng lực khi phản ứng với nhau có gây hại cho cơ thể con người hay không. 

Câu 23.

Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions from 43 to 50.

         What is "extreme" weather? Why are people talking about it these days? "Extreme" weather is an unusual weather event such as rainfall, a drought or a heat wave in the wrong place or at the wrong time. In theory, they are very rare. But these days, our TV screens are constantly showing such extreme weather events. Take just three news stories from 2010: 28 centimetres of rain fell on Rio de Janeiro in 24 hours, Nashville, USA, had 33 centimetres of rain in two days and there was record rainfall in Pakistan.

          The effects of this kind of rainfall are dramatic and lethal. In Rio de Janeiro, landslides followed, burying hundreds of people. In Pakistan, the floods affected 20 million people. Meanwhile, other parts of the world suffer devastating droughts. Australia, Russia and East Africa have been hit in the last ten years. And then there are unexpected heat waves, such as in 2003 in Europe. That summer, 35,000 deaths were said to be heat-related.

           So, what is happening to our weather? Are these extreme events part of a natural cycle? Or are they caused by human activity and its effects on the Earth‘s climate? Peter Miller says it‘s probably a mixture of both of these things. On the one hand, the most important influences on weather events are natural cycles in the climate. Two of the most famous weather cycles, El Niño and La Niña, originate in the Pacific Ocean. The heat from the warm ocean rises high into the atmosphere and affects weather all around the world. On the other hand, the temperature of the Earth‘s oceans is slowly but steadily going up. And this is a result of human activity. We are producing greenhouse gases that trap heat in the Earth‘s atmosphere. This heat warms up the atmosphere, land and oceans. Warmer oceans produce more water vapour – think of heating a pan of water in your kitchen. Turn up the heat, it produces steam more quickly. Satellite data tells us that the water vapour in the atmosphere has gone up by four percent in 25 years. This warm, wet air turns into the rain, storms, hurricanes and typhoons that we are increasingly experiencing. Climate scientist, Michael Oppenheimer, says that we need to face the reality of climate change. And we also need to act now to save lives and money in the future.

(Source: © 2015 National Geographic Learning.www.ngllife.com/wild-weather)

Question 43: It is stated in the passage that extreme weather is ______.

  1. becoming more common
  2.  not a natural occurrence
  3.  difficult for scientists to understand
  4. killing more people than ever before

Hướng dẫn giải:

 Đáp án A

Dịch nghĩa: Nó được nói đến trong đoạn văn rằng thời tiết khắc nghiệt là _______

A.Đang trở nên phổ biến hơn.  

B. không phải một hiện tượng tự nhiên

C. khó khăn cho các nhà nghiên cứu hiểu

D. giết chết nhiều người hơn bao giờ hết

Giải thích: Thông tin nằm ở  'Extreme' weather is an unusual weather event such as rainfall, a drought or a heat wave in the wrong place or at the wrong time. In theory, they are very rare. But these days, our TV screens are constantly showing such extreme weather events.”

 - Thời tiết khắc nghiệt là một hiện tượng thời tiết bất thường như mưa, hạn hán hoặc một làn sóng nhiệt ở  vị trí sai hoặc không đúng lúc. Về lý thuyết, chúng rất hiếm. Nhưng những ngày này, màn hình TV của chúng tôi liên tục cho thấy các sự kiện thời tiết cực đoan như vậy. 

Câu 24.

Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions from 43 to 50. 

         What is "extreme" weather? Why are people talking about it these days? "Extreme" weather is an unusual weather event such as rainfall, a drought or a heat wave in the wrong place or at the wrong time. In theory, they are very rare. But these days, our TV screens are constantly showing such extreme weather events. Take just three news stories from 2010: 28 centimetres of rain fell on Rio de Janeiro in 24 hours, Nashville, USA, had 33 centimetres of rain in two days and there was record rainfall in Pakistan. 

          The effects of this kind of rainfall are dramatic and lethal. In Rio de Janeiro, landslides followed, burying hundreds of people. In Pakistan, the floods affected 20 million people. Meanwhile, other parts of the world suffer devastating droughts. Australia, Russia and East Africa have been hit in the last ten years. And then there are unexpected heat waves, such as in 2003 in Europe. That summer, 35,000 deaths were said to be heat-related.

           So, what is happening to our weather? Are these extreme events part of a natural cycle? Or are they caused by human activity and its effects on the Earth‘s climate? Peter Miller says it‘s probably a mixture of both of these things. On the one hand, the most important influences on weather events are natural cycles in the climate. Two of the most famous weather cycles, El Niño and La Niña, originate in the Pacific Ocean. The heat from the warm ocean rises high into the atmosphere and affects weather all around the world. On the other hand, the temperature of the Earth‘s oceans is slowly  but steadily going up. And this is a result of human activity. We are producing greenhouse gases that trap heat in the Earth‘s atmosphere. This heat warms up the atmosphere, land and oceans. Warmer oceans produce more water vapour – think of heating a pan of water in your kitchen. Turn up the heat, it produces steam more quickly. Satellite data tells us that the water vapour in the atmosphere has gone up by four percent in 25 years. This warm, wet air turns into the rain, storms, hurricanes and typhoons that we are increasingly experiencing. Climate scientist, Michael Oppenheimer, says that we need to face the reality of climate change. And we also need to act now to save lives and money in the future.

(Source: © 2015 National Geographic Learning.www.ngllife.com/wild-weather)

Question 44:  The word 'lethal' in the second paragraph probably means ______.

  1. far-reaching
  2. long-lasting
  3. happening soon
  4. causing deaths 

Hướng dẫn giải:

 Đáp án D 

Dịch: Từ “lethal” in đoạn văn thứ 2 có nghĩa là______  

A.có thể áp dụng rộng rãi  

B. lâu dài

C. xảy ra sớm  

D. gây ra cái chết  

Lethal = causing deaths : gây ra cái chết 

Câu 25.

Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions from 43 to 50. 

         What is "extreme" weather? Why are people talking about it these days? "Extreme" weather is an unusual weather event such as rainfall, a drought or a heat wave in the wrong place or at the wrong time. In theory, they are very rare. But these days, our TV screens are constantly showing such extreme weather events. Take just three news stories from 2010: 28 centimetres of rain fell on Rio de Janeiro in 24 hours, Nashville, USA, had 33 centimetres of rain in two days and there was record rainfall in Pakistan. 

          The effects of this kind of rainfall are dramatic and lethal. In Rio de Janeiro, landslides followed, burying hundreds of people. In Pakistan, the floods affected 20 million people. Meanwhile, other parts of the world suffer devastating droughts. Australia, Russia and East Africa have been hit in the last ten years. And then there are unexpected heat waves, such as in 2003 in Europe. That summer, 35,000 deaths were said to be heat-related.

           So, what is happening to our weather? Are these extreme events part of a natural cycle? Or are they caused by human activity and its effects on the Earth‘s climate? Peter Miller says it‘s probably a mixture of both of these things. On the one hand, the most important influences on weather events are natural cycles in the climate. Two of the most famous weather cycles, El Niño and La Niña, originate in the Pacific Ocean. The heat from the warm ocean rises high into the atmosphere and affects weather all around the world. On the other hand, the temperature of the Earth‘s oceans is slowly  but steadily going up. And this is a result of human activity. We are producing greenhouse gases that trap heat in the Earth‘s atmosphere. This heat warms up the atmosphere, land and oceans. Warmer oceans produce more water vapour – think of heating a pan of water in your kitchen. Turn up the heat, it produces steam more quickly. Satellite data tells us that the water vapour in the atmosphere has gone up by four percent in 25 years. This warm, wet air turns into the rain, storms, hurricanes and typhoons that we are increasingly experiencing. Climate scientist, Michael Oppenheimer, says that we need to face the reality of climate change. And we also need to act now to save lives and money in the future. 

(Source: © 2015 National Geographic Learning.www.ngllife.com/wild-weather) 

Question 45:  What caused thousands of deaths in 2003?

  1.  a period of hot weather
  2. floods after a bad summer
  3.  a long spell of heavy rain
  4. large-scale landslides  

Hướng dẫn giải:

Đáp án A 

Dịch: Điều gi gây ra hàng ngàn cái chết vào năm 2003?

 A.Một thời kỳ thời tiết nóng nực  

B. lũ lụt sau một mùa hè tồi tệ

C. mưa to một thời gian dài

D. sạt lở đất quy mô lớn

Giải thích: Thông tin nằm ở dòng 8,9: “ Meanwhile, other parts of the world suffer devastating droughts. Australia, Russia and East Africa have been hit in the last ten years. And then there are unexpected heat waves, such as in 2003 in Europe. That summer, 35,000 deaths were said to be heatrelated” –Trong khi đó, các bộ phận khác của thế giới lại bị hạn hán tàn phá. Úc, Nga và Đông Phi đã bị ảnh hưởng trong suốt mười năm qua. Và sau đó có sóng nhiệt bất ngờ, chẳng hạn như trong năm 2003 tại châu Âu. Mùa hè năm đó, 35.000 trường hợp tử vong được cho là liên quan đến nhiệt. 

Câu 26.

Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions from 43 to 50. 

         What is "extreme" weather? Why are people talking about it these days? "Extreme" weather is an unusual weather event such as rainfall, a drought or a heat wave in the wrong place or at the wrong time. In theory, they are very rare. But these days, our TV screens are constantly showing such extreme weather events. Take just three news stories from 2010: 28 centimetres of rain fell on Rio de Janeiro in 24 hours, Nashville, USA, had 33 centimetres of rain in two days and there was record rainfall in Pakistan. 

          The effects of this kind of rainfall are dramatic and lethal. In Rio de Janeiro, landslides followed, burying hundreds of people. In Pakistan, the floods affected 20 million people. Meanwhile, other parts of the world suffer devastating droughts. Australia, Russia and East Africa have been hit in the last ten years. And then there are unexpected heat waves, such as in 2003 in Europe. That summer, 35,000 deaths were said to be heat-related.

           So, what is happening to our weather? Are these extreme events part of a natural cycle? Or are they caused by human activity and its effects on the Earth‘s climate? Peter Miller says it‘s probably a mixture of both of these things. On the one hand, the most important influences on weather events are natural cycles in the climate. Two of the most famous weather cycles, El Niño and La Niña, originate in the Pacific Ocean. The heat from the warm ocean rises high into the atmosphere and affects weather all around the world. On the other hand, the temperature of the Earth‘s oceans is slowly  but steadily going up. And this is a result of human activity. We are producing greenhouse gases that trap heat in the Earth‘s atmosphere. This heat warms up the atmosphere, land and oceans. Warmer oceans produce more water vapour – think of heating a pan of water in your kitchen. Turn up the heat, it produces steam more quickly. Satellite data tells us that the water vapour in the atmosphere has gone up by four percent in 25 years. This warm, wet air turns into the rain, storms, hurricanes and typhoons that we are increasingly experiencing. Climate scientist, Michael Oppenheimer, says that we need to face the reality of climate change. And we also need to act now to save lives and money in the future. 

(Source: © 2015 National Geographic Learning.www.ngllife.com/wild-weather) 

Question 46:  According to the passage, extreme weather is a problem because ______.

  1. we can never predict it
  2. it only affects crowded places
  3. it‘s often very destructive
  4.  its causes are completely unknown 

Hướng dẫn giải:

 Đáp án C

  Dịch:   Theo như đoạn văn, thời tiết khắc nghiệt là một vấn đề vì __________  

A: chúng ta không bao giờ dự đoán được

B. nó chỉ ảnh hưởng đến những nơi đông đúc  

C. nó thường rất tai hại

D. nguyên nhân của nó hoàn toàn không thể biết được

Giải thích: Thông tin nằm ở đoạn 2: “The effects of this kind of rainfall are dramatic and lethal. In Rio de Janeiro, landslides followed, burying hundreds of people. In Pakistan, the floods affected 20 million people. Meanwhile, other parts of the world suffer devastating droughts. Australia, Russia and East Africa have been hit in the last ten years. And then there are unexpected heat waves, such as in 2003 in Europe. That summer, 35,000 deaths were said to be heat-related.”   - hậu quả của loại mưa này rất nghiêm trọng và gây chết người. Ở Rio de Janeiro,  vụ sạt lở đất sau đó, chôn vùi hàng trăm người. Ở Pakistan, lũ lụt đã ảnh hưởng đến 20 triệu người.  Trong khi đó, các bộ phận khác của thế giới lại bị hạn hán tàn phá. Úc, Nga và Đông Phi đã bị ảnh hưởng trong suốt mười năm qua. Và sau đó có sóng nhiệt bất ngờ, chẳng hạn như trong năm 2003 tại châu Âu. Mùa hè năm đó, 35.000 trường hợp tử vong được cho là liên quan đến nhiệt. 

Câu 27.

 

 

Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions from 43 to 50. 

         What is "extreme" weather? Why are people talking about it these days? "Extreme" weather is an unusual weather event such as rainfall, a drought or a heat wave in the wrong place or at the wrong time. In theory, they are very rare. But these days, our TV screens are constantly showing such extreme weather events. Take just three news stories from 2010: 28 centimetres of rain fell on Rio de Janeiro in 24 hours, Nashville, USA, had 33 centimetres of rain in two days and there was record rainfall in Pakistan. 

          The effects of this kind of rainfall are dramatic and lethal. In Rio de Janeiro, landslides followed, burying hundreds of people. In Pakistan, the floods affected 20 million people. Meanwhile, other parts of the world suffer devastating droughts. Australia, Russia and East Africa have been hit in the last ten years. And then there are unexpected heat waves, such as in 2003 in Europe. That summer, 35,000 deaths were said to be heat-related.

           So, what is happening to our weather? Are these extreme events part of a natural cycle? Or are they caused by human activity and its effects on the Earth‘s climate? Peter Miller says it‘s probably a mixture of both of these things. On the one hand, the most important influences on weather events are natural cycles in the climate. Two of the most famous weather cycles, El Niño and La Niña, originate in the Pacific Ocean. The heat from the warm ocean rises high into the atmosphere and affects weather all around the world. On the other hand, the temperature of the Earth‘s oceans is slowly  but steadily going up. And this is a result of human activity. We are producing greenhouse gases that trap heat in the Earth‘s atmosphere. This heat warms up the atmosphere, land and oceans. Warmer oceans produce more water vapour – think of heating a pan of water in your kitchen. Turn up the heat, it produces steam more quickly. Satellite data tells us that the water vapour in the atmosphere has gone up by four percent in 25 years. This warm, wet air turns into the rain, storms, hurricanes and typhoons that we are increasingly experiencing. Climate scientist, Michael Oppenheimer, says that we need to face the reality of climate change. And we also need to act now to save lives and money in the future. 

(Source: © 2015 National Geographic Learning.www.ngllife.com/wild-weather) 

Question 47: The word 'that' in the third paragraph refers to ______.

  1. Earth‘s oceans
  2. human activity
  3.  greenhouse gases
  4. Earth‘s atmosphere

Hướng dẫn giải:

 Đáp án C

 Dịch:  Từ “that” ở đoạn thứ 3 ám chỉ  _______        

A. các đại dương trên trái đất

B. hoạt động của con người        

C. khí nhà kính

D. bầu khí quyển của trái đất

Giải thích:  Thông tin nằm ở Question: “We are producing greenhouse gases that trap heat in the Earth‘s atmosphere.” -  Chúng ta đang sản xuất các loại khí nhà kính cái mà giữ nhiệt trong khí quyển của Trái đất. Như vậy, “that” ở đây thay thế cho “greenhouse gases” - các loại khí nhà kính.   

Câu 28.

 

 

Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions from 43 to 50. 

         What is "extreme" weather? Why are people talking about it these days? "Extreme" weather is an unusual weather event such as rainfall, a drought or a heat wave in the wrong place or at the wrong time. In theory, they are very rare. But these days, our TV screens are constantly showing such extreme weather events. Take just three news stories from 2010: 28 centimetres of rain fell on Rio de Janeiro in 24 hours, Nashville, USA, had 33 centimetres of rain in two days and there was record rainfall in Pakistan. 

          The effects of this kind of rainfall are dramatic and lethal. In Rio de Janeiro, landslides followed, burying hundreds of people. In Pakistan, the floods affected 20 million people. Meanwhile, other parts of the world suffer devastating droughts. Australia, Russia and East Africa have been hit in the last ten years. And then there are unexpected heat waves, such as in 2003 in Europe. That summer, 35,000 deaths were said to be heat-related.

           So, what is happening to our weather? Are these extreme events part of a natural cycle? Or are they caused by human activity and its effects on the Earth‘s climate? Peter Miller says it‘s probably a mixture of both of these things. On the one hand, the most important influences on weather events are natural cycles in the climate. Two of the most famous weather cycles, El Niño and La Niña, originate in the Pacific Ocean. The heat from the warm ocean rises high into the atmosphere and affects weather all around the world. On the other hand, the temperature of the Earth‘s oceans is slowly  but steadily going up. And this is a result of human activity. We are producing greenhouse gases that trap heat in the Earth‘s atmosphere. This heat warms up the atmosphere, land and oceans. Warmer oceans produce more water vapour – think of heating a pan of water in your kitchen. Turn up the heat, it produces steam more quickly. Satellite data tells us that the water vapour in the atmosphere has gone up by four percent in 25 years. This warm, wet air turns into the rain, storms, hurricanes and typhoons that we are increasingly experiencing. Climate scientist, Michael Oppenheimer, says that we need to face the reality of climate change. And we also need to act now to save lives and money in the future. 

(Source: © 2015 National Geographic Learning.www.ngllife.com/wild-weather) 

Question 48: Extreme weather can be caused by ______.

  1.  satellites above the Earth
  2.  water vapour in the atmosphere
  3. very hot summers
  4. water pans in your kitchen

 

 

Hướng dẫn giải:

 Đáp án B

Dịch: Thời tiết khắc nghiệt có thể bị gây ra bởi __________      

A. các vệ tinh trên Trái đất

B. hơi nước trong khí quyển      

C. những mùa hè rất nóng

D. ấm nước trong nhà bếp của bạn

Giải thích: Thông tin nằm ở câu: “Satellite data tells us that the water vapour in the atmosphere has gone up by four percent in 25 years. This warm, wet air turns into the rain, storms, hurricanes and typhoons that we are increasingly experiencing” - Dữ liệu vệ tinh cho chúng ta biết rằng hơi nước trong khí quyển đã tăng bốn phần trăm trong 25 năm. Không khí ấm áp, ẩm ướt này biến thành mưa, bão, cơn bão và bão mà chúng tôi đang ngày càng gặp nhiều.

Câu 29.

 

 

Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions from 43 to 50. 

         What is "extreme" weather? Why are people talking about it these days? "Extreme" weather is an unusual weather event such as rainfall, a drought or a heat wave in the wrong place or at the wrong time. In theory, they are very rare. But these days, our TV screens are constantly showing such extreme weather events. Take just three news stories from 2010: 28 centimetres of rain fell on Rio de Janeiro in 24 hours, Nashville, USA, had 33 centimetres of rain in two days and there was record rainfall in Pakistan. 

          The effects of this kind of rainfall are dramatic and lethal. In Rio de Janeiro, landslides followed, burying hundreds of people. In Pakistan, the floods affected 20 million people. Meanwhile, other parts of the world suffer devastating droughts. Australia, Russia and East Africa have been hit in the last ten years. And then there are unexpected heat waves, such as in 2003 in Europe. That summer, 35,000 deaths were said to be heat-related.

           So, what is happening to our weather? Are these extreme events part of a natural cycle? Or are they caused by human activity and its effects on the Earth‘s climate? Peter Miller says it‘s probably a mixture of both of these things. On the one hand, the most important influences on weather events are natural cycles in the climate. Two of the most famous weather cycles, El Niño and La Niña, originate in the Pacific Ocean. The heat from the warm ocean rises high into the atmosphere and affects weather all around the world. On the other hand, the temperature of the Earth‘s oceans is slowly  but steadily going up. And this is a result of human activity. We are producing greenhouse gases that trap heat in the Earth‘s atmosphere. This heat warms up the atmosphere, land and oceans. Warmer oceans produce more water vapour – think of heating a pan of water in your kitchen. Turn up the heat, it produces steam more quickly. Satellite data tells us that the water vapour in the atmosphere has gone up by four percent in 25 years. This warm, wet air turns into the rain, storms, hurricanes and typhoons that we are increasingly experiencing. Climate scientist, Michael Oppenheimer, says that we need to face the reality of climate change. And we also need to act now to save lives and money in the future. 

(Source: © 2015 National Geographic Learning.www.ngllife.com/wild-weather) 

Question 49: Satellites are used to ______.

  1.  change the direction of severe storms
  2.  trap greenhouse gases in the atmosphere
  3.  measure changes in atmospheric water vapour
  4.  prevent climate from changing quickly

Hướng dẫn giải:

 Đáp án C

Dịch:  Vệ tinh được dùng để _____

A. thay đổi hướng của những cơn bão nghiêm trọng

B. bẫy khí nhà kính trong khí quyển

C. đo những thay đổi trong hơi nước trong khí quyển

D. ngăn chặn khí hậu thay đổi một cách nhanh chóng

Giải thích: Thông tin ở câu “Satellite data tells us that the water vapour in the atmosphere has gone up by four percent in 25 years.” - Dữ liệu vệ tinh cho chúng ta biết rằng hơi nước trong khí quyển đã tăng bốn phần trăm trong 25 năm. Question 

 

Câu 30.

Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions from 43 to 50. 

         What is "extreme" weather? Why are people talking about it these days? "Extreme" weather is an unusual weather event such as rainfall, a drought or a heat wave in the wrong place or at the wrong time. In theory, they are very rare. But these days, our TV screens are constantly showing such extreme weather events. Take just three news stories from 2010: 28 centimetres of rain fell on Rio de Janeiro in 24 hours, Nashville, USA, had 33 centimetres of rain in two days and there was record rainfall in Pakistan. 

          The effects of this kind of rainfall are dramatic and lethal. In Rio de Janeiro, landslides followed, burying hundreds of people. In Pakistan, the floods affected 20 million people. Meanwhile, other parts of the world suffer devastating droughts. Australia, Russia and East Africa have been hit in the last ten years. And then there are unexpected heat waves, such as in 2003 in Europe. That summer, 35,000 deaths were said to be heat-related.

           So, what is happening to our weather? Are these extreme events part of a natural cycle? Or are they caused by human activity and its effects on the Earth‘s climate? Peter Miller says it‘s probably a mixture of both of these things. On the one hand, the most important influences on weather events are natural cycles in the climate. Two of the most famous weather cycles, El Niño and La Niña, originate in the Pacific Ocean. The heat from the warm ocean rises high into the atmosphere and affects weather all around the world. On the other hand, the temperature of the Earth‘s oceans is slowly  but steadily going up. And this is a result of human activity. We are producing greenhouse gases that trap heat in the Earth‘s atmosphere. This heat warms up the atmosphere, land and oceans. Warmer oceans produce more water vapour – think of heating a pan of water in your kitchen. Turn up the heat, it produces steam more quickly. Satellite data tells us that the water vapour in the atmosphere has gone up by four percent in 25 years. This warm, wet air turns into the rain, storms, hurricanes and typhoons that we are increasingly experiencing. Climate scientist, Michael Oppenheimer, says that we need to face the reality of climate change. And we also need to act now to save lives and money in the future. 

(Source: © 2015 National Geographic Learning.www.ngllife.com/wild-weather) 

Question 50: Which statement is NOT supported by the information in the passage?

  1.  Extreme weather is substantially influenced by human activity.
  2. Unusual weather events are part of natural cycles.
  3. We can limit the bad effects of extreme weather.
  4. Such extreme weather is hardly the consequence of human activity. 

Hướng dẫn giải:

 Đáp án D

Dịch:  Thông tin nào không được cung cấp trong đoạn văn:

A. Thời tiết khắc nghiệt về căn bản bị ảnh hưởng bởi hoạt động của con người.

B. Các hiện tượng thời tiết thất thường là một phần của chu kỳ tự nhiên

C. Chúng ta có thể hạn chế những tác động xấu của thời tiết khắc nghiệt

D. thời tiết khắc nghiệt như vậy hầu như không phải hậu quả của các hoạt động của con người.

Giải thích: Thông tin ở câu “Are these extreme events part of a natural cycle? Or are they caused by human activity and its effects on the Earth‘s climate? Peter Miller says it‘s probably a mixture of both of these things” – Liệu những hiện tượng khắc nghiệt này là một phần của chu kỳ tự nhiên? Hay chúng bị gây ra bởi hoạt động của con người và ảnh hưởng lên khí hậu của trái đất? Peter Miller nói nó có thể là sự kết hợp của cả hai điều trên. 

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