Unit 8 : THE STORY OF MY VILLAGE

Unit 8 : THE STORY OF MY VILLAGE

 

I. Reported speech: Statements.

  Ex1: Tom says “I am a student”.

=> Tom says (that) he is a student.

  Ex2: Ha says to me “I am a student now”.

=> Ha tells me (that) she is a student now.

  Ex3: Minh said “I am a teacher now”.

=> Minh said (that) he was a teacher then.

  Ex4: Peter said to me “I will visit my father tomorrow”.

=>Peter told me (that) he would visit his father the next day.

 * Notes:

a. Reporting verb in Simple present, present continuous, present perfect and simple future. (Tenses of the verbs: not changed).

b. Reporting verb in Simple past: (Tenses of the verbs: Changed).

      Direct speech                                    Indirect speech

- Present (simple/ continuous)  => Past (simple/ continuous)

- Past (simple/ continuous)       => Past perfect (simple/ continuous)

- Past (simple/ continuous)       => Past perfect (simple/ continuous)

- Present perfect                        => Past perfect

- will/ shall/ can / may…+V1  => would / should / could / might + V1

- Past perfect: not changed.

c. say(s) to +  O    =>  tell(s) + O

    said to    + O     =>  told   + O

d. Rules of changing Personal pronouns, possessive adjectives and pronounce.

- 1st persons: changed as the S of the reporting verb.

- 2nd person: changed as the O of the reporting verb.

- 3rd person: not changed.

e.  Ways of Changing.

- here                                  => there

- this                                   => that 

- these                                 => those

- now                                  => then

- tonight                              => that night

- today                                 => that day

- tomorrow                          => the next day/ the following day

- yesterday                          => the day before/ the previous day

- ago                                    => before

- last + N                             => the previous + N

- next  + N                           => the following  + n

- the day before yesterday   => two days before

- the day after tomorrow     => in two days’ time

II. Conditional sentence type 1.

Ex1: If I have a lot of money, I will buy a new bicycle.

           S   V1                           S          Vo

Ex2: If you study harder, you can succeed in this exam.

             S      V1                  S              Vo     

* Form

                                                     will

                                                     shall

        If  +  S  + V1/ S/ ES +…, S  ­+  can     +   Vo  +….

                                                     may

                                                    

* Usage: Diễn tả điều kiện có thể xảy ra ở hiện tại hay tương lai.

Vocabulary

1. crop (n) [krɔp]  vụ mùa                              

2. produce (v) [prə'dju:s] làm , sản xuất

3. help (v) [help]  giúp đỡ                               

4. hard (adv) [hɑ:d] vất vả, gian khổ

5. harvest (v) ['hɑ:vist] thu họach                  

6. rice field (n) ['rais'fi:ld] cánh đồng lúa

7. make ends meet (v) kiếm đủ tiền để sống

8. to be in need of (a) thiếu cái gì                    

9. simple (a) ['simpl] đơn giản, dễ hiểu

10. straw (n) [strɔ:] rơm                                 

11. mud (n) [mʌd] bùn

12. brick (n) [brik] gạch                                  

13. shortage (n) ['∫ɔ:tidʒ] túng thiếu

14.  manage ['mænidʒ] (v) to do sth : giải quyết , xoay sở.    

15. villager (n) ['vilidʒə] dân làng

16. send (v) somebody to school / college ['kɔlidʒ] : gửi ai đi học phổ thông / đại học.

17. techical high school (n) trường trung học kĩ thuật   

18. farming method (n) [fɑ:miη, 'meθəd] : phương pháp canh tác

19. bumper crop (n) mùa màng bội thu

20. cash crop (n) ['kæ∫krɒp] vụ mùa trồng để bán        

21. export (v) ['ekspɔ:t] xuất khẩu

22. thanks to (conj.) nhờ vào                         

23. knowledge (n) ['nɔlidʒ] kiến thức

24. bring home : [briη, houm] mang về          

25. lifestyle (n) [laifstail] lối sống

26. better (v) ['betə] cải thiện, làm cho tốt hơn.

27. comfortably (adv) ['kʌmfətəbli] : dễ chịu, thỏai mái         

28. grandchild (n)['grændt∫aid] cháu (của ông bà)   

29. make ends meet [mi:t] (exp.) kiếm đủ sống

30. in need [ni:d] of many things : thiếu thốn nhiều thứ

 

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